Saturday, December 24, 2011

A Lesson in Basic Gene Expression

Directions for making proteins are encoded in the DNA sequences of genes, which reside on chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell. But for proteins to be made, a gene’s DNA code must be copied, or transcribed, onto mRNA molecules, which migrate from the nucleus and into the cytoplasm where the cell’s protein-making machinery is located. For as long as it exists, an mRNA molecule can act as a template for making copies of a protein. So scientists have long suspected that cells must have ways for degrading mRNAs when, for example, a protein starts accumulating to harmful levels. “The cell somehow decides to destroy its mRNA on cue, but nobody knew how this happens,” said Dr. Singer. _EinsteinNews
Gene Expression Image

Understanding gene expression is one of the keys to the discovery of how to live much longer and healthier lives. The basic outline of gene expression has been known for several decades, but the details of control and timing of the complex networks of gene expression are just being exposed.

Scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine recently made a basic discovery in the control of messenger RNA lifespan, which may help to unlock one of the important doors to understanding.
When genes are transcribed, a part of the gene called the promoter region has the job of switching on the gene so that DNA will be copied into mRNA. The Einstein scientists found that the promoter regions of the SWI5 and CLB2 genes do something else as well: they recruit a protein called Dbf2p, which jumps onto mRNA molecules as they’re being synthesized.

These mRNAs—transcribed from the SWI5 and CLB2 genes and bearing the Dbf2p protein—make their journey from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Here a protein called Dbf20p joins Dbf2p aboard the mRNA molecules—and the two proteins together call for the molecules’ precipitous decay.

“Our findings indicate that genes making proteins whose levels must be carefully controlled contain promoter regions that sentence their mRNA molecules to death even as the mRNA is being born,” said Dr. Singer. “The promoter regions do that by ‘marking’ the newly made mRNA with the protein Dbf2p—the common factor between mRNA synthesis and its ultimate decay. Dbf2p stays attached to the mRNA from its birth and then, responding to a signal indicating that no more protein should be made, orders mRNA’s destruction.” _EinsteinNews

You see, as long as the messenger RNA stays around in the cytoplasm, it will keep binding to ribosomes, and continue to produce its protein. This is not what the cell wants, in general, since the relative quantities of different proteins are maintained in a healthy balance.

The application of this discovery to life extension is not immediately apparent to the casual reader. And yet as we come to understand the build-up of imbalances within cells which accompany the ageing process, we are likely to find multiple ways in which this particular system can go wrong, and contribute to degenerative changes.

The better we understand this complex dance of molecules, the better will be our solutions to the problems that occur when the complex system begins to break down. Eventually, we will probably want to re-design some of these sub-systems in ways to make them more robust.

PDF of actual study, published in Cell

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2 Comments:

Blogger Dov Henis said...

Genes’ Expressions Are Results Of Life Culture, NOT Their Cause

Long-lived people distinguished by DNA”? Ludicrous…

The "long life" DNA expressions are formed by the living mode-culture of the old timers, by the genes “adapting” to their “desirable” circumstances. This is evolution, natural selection, and the genes ARE ORGANISMS.

It's the culture horses that pull-effect the genetic changes, NOT "longevity genes wagon" that pushes-effects long life.

Ask Pavlov. Learn from him...

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com/2011/12/22/rnas-are-earths-primal-organisms


Ludicrous Ignorant Concepts-Understanding Of Culture-Genetics Life-Aging
“Longevity Genes” Are Expressions Effected By The Life Mode, Culture, Of The Aged
It’s Culture That Modifies Genes, NOT Vice Versa

A.
http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/01/live-chat-the-science-of-antiagi.html?ref=em

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/01/long-life-is-still-somewhat-in-y.html?ref=em

B.
"To Map Cell Circuits" with ludicrous ignorant concepts-understanding of what is life, cell...!
Quantum Mechanics Of Life
http://universe-life.com/2011/03/27/quantum-mechanics-of-life/

Life’s Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Biology
From “Essence Of Quantum Mechanics”
http://universe-life.com/2011/01/24/quantum-mechanics-and-entanglement/

The universe, and life within it, are not just conglomerations of mechanisms. The universe, and life within it, have come into being by the nature of energy-mass dualism, and their fate, their final outcome, is governed by this dualism. The genesis and, most probable cyclic, existence of the universe are governed by the energy-mass relationship.
Energy-mass relationship governs also the routes, the mechanisms, of cosmic and life evolutions.
Mechanisms do not set/determine the classical physics fate states. Mechanisms are routes of evolution between classical physics fate states. Quantum mechanics are mechanisms, probable, possible and actual mechanisms of getting from one to other classical physics states WITHIN the expanse from cosmic singularity to the maximum expanded universe and back to singularity states.
The universe is the archetype of quantum within classical physics. This is the fractal oneness of the universe. Astronomically there are two physics. A classical Newtonian physics behavior of and between galactic clusters, and a quantum physics behavior WITHIN the galactic clusters.

Life’s Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Biology.
UNRAVEL COMPLEXITIES OF GENETICS.
Extend Evolution/Natural Selection Backward To Life’s Primal Organisms, RNA Genes, And To Genomes, BOTH ARE ORGANISMs, evolving adapting by culture, by reactions to circumstances.

The origin-reason and the purpose-fate of life are mechanistic, ethically and practically valueless. Life is the cheapest commodity on Earth.
Human life is just one of many nature’s routes for the natural survival of RNAs, the base Earth organism.
It is up to humans themselves to elect the purpose and format of their life as individuals and as group-members.

Dov Henis
(Comments From 22nd Century)
“Rethink Evolution/Natural Selection”
http://darwiniana.com/2011/03/26/in-evolution-last-really-can-be-first/comment-page-1/

8:01 AM  
Blogger Dov Henis said...

New Era For Science Including Genomics ???

From: Dov Henis
Sent: Friday, April 13, 2012 10:43 PM
To: genome biologists
Subject: A new era for science including genomics ??? Please examine carefully…

Yesterday, SN , after many years of refusing my similar postings, SN posted my following statement-comment:

http://www.sciencenews.org/index/generic/activity/view/id/339659/title/Fruit_fly_biorhythms_differ_indoors_and_out
Biorhythms Schmiorythms
Circadian Schmircadian sleep origin?

Life sleeps because RNAs genesized, evolved from inanimate nucleotides into self-replicating nucleotides, organisms, of course long before metabolism evolved. They were then active ONLY during sunlight hours. Thus sleep is inherent for RNAs, even though, being ORGANISMS, they later adapted to when/extent sleep times are feasible just as we adapt to jetlag or night work time.

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
Apr. 12, 2012 at 9:10am
===========================

From: Dov Henis
Sent: Saturday, April 14, 2012 9:05 AM
To: genome biologists
Subject: FW: A new era for science including genomics ??? Please examine carefully…

Unbelievable?! Here’s another one…

From: Dov Henis
Sent: Sunday, April 08, 2012 9:06 PM
To: ‘editors@sciencenews.org’
Subject: On Pavlov and genes…

Fatty Diet Leads To Fat-Loving Brain Cells
http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/339458/title/Fatty_diet_leads_to_fat-loving_brain_cells

Learn from Pavlov:
Fatty diet lead to fat-loving RNA-nucleotides genes, Earthlife base primal ORGANISMS.

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com/2011/12/22/rnas-are-earths-primal-organisms/

===================

Since the above two statements are basis for the following statement, may it also soon pass the SN “peer review”… ?!

USA Science? Re-Comprehend Origins And Essence

• Higgs Particle? Dark Energy/Matter? Epigenetics? All YOK!
• Earth-life is just another, self-replicating, mass format.
• All mass formats follow natural selection, i.e. intake of energy or their energy taken in by other mass formats.
• Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Natural Selection.
• Quantum mechanics are mechanisms, possible or probable or actual mechanisms of natural selection.
• Life’s Evolution is the quantum mechanics of biology.
• Every evolution, of all disciplines, is the quantum mechanics of the discipline’s natural selection.

See:
Update Concepts-Comprehension…
http://universe-life.com/2011/12/13/21st-century-science-whence-and-whither/
Earth life genesis from aromaticity-H bonding
http://universe-life.com/2011/09/30/earthlife-genesis-from-aromaticityh-bonding/
Universe-Energy-Mass-Life Compilation
http://universe-life.com/2012/02/03/universe-energy-mass-life-compilation/
Seed of human-chimp genome diversity
http://universe-life.com/2011/07/10/seed-of-human-chimp-genomes-diversity/

============

Respectfully,
Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

12:32 PM  

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